Tag Archives: Tigers

Some wild moments in Sariska!

SO finally the cliché of the visit. Earlier four accounts- Bhangarh, Kankwari, Neelkanth and the Birds were quite fascinating and actually different from usual routines of visit to the national park. But then what about the wild inside you? Bhangarh might not haunt you but not sighting a tiger in the tiger reserve is certainly going to haunt you to a certain degree for a considerable duration of time. Purely on that terms Sariska has been third time lucky for me. My first trip to Sariska was almost thirty years ago when tiger safari was not a fancy idea, and second one 17 years ago when tiger was always second in my thought. (What was the first?)

Sariska Safari1
Foggy entry through the Sariska gate to the tiger reserve

But then as I have always said that though its always fascinating to watch a tiger in the wild, but not watching it doesn’t creates a sort of disappointment until I have given full time to the jungle. I thoroughly enjoy the jungles sans tiger too, as the most true wildlife enthusiasts will actually do. In that sense as well, safari in Sariska was quite satisfying.

Sariska Safari2

Jungle was as beautiful as always. But interesting part is that no two jungles and no two visits to the same jungle look the same. The  three hour safari had its moments of joy, admiration, awe and pure love. I am revisiting the safari only on those moments, and they are absolutely not in any particular order.

Well, we had the tiger sighting within first 25 minutes into safari, so once we had it, it made the rest of safari time relaxing and anxiety free. Tiger sighting was close but not from front as he chose to just walk in front of the cavalcade of the safari vehicles.

So here are the few glimpses of the mighty cat-

But this sighting was not without a drama and slightly unpleasant one. I always believe that one should enjoy the wildlife that comes their way during safari. It can be and it should be your luck to see an animal, not your right. There has been long debate about use of radio collars on tigers. Still they were accepted as way to track them and save them from poaching. But to use radio collars to help tiger sighting in safari is a bit ugly practice. Here too, while we were waiting for the tiger at a nullah, a supposedly VIP came on another safari vehicle along with a radio tracker, who kept on tracking the exact location of tiger and thus the whole group of six safari vehicles kept following the tiger guided by radio tracker. Look for yourself-

Talking about cats, I have not been so far fortunate to see them hunting in the wild. But we got to see a kill of a leopard who hunted a sambhar and then dragged him up on a tree. Leopard was not there but the kill was still hanging up on the tree-

As per numbers, it is the deer family which rules the jungles. You can find them everywhere and actually observing their behaviour patiently is also very interesting-

Another scene worth remembering from the safari was the cheetal-monkey play. Deer-monkey friendship is always take about in jungle tales. It was so warming to see them play and then drink water together from the same pond-

I had already written in earlier posts about the number of peahens and peacocks in the region. Same was here inside the park. They were everywhere- playing and dancing. How beautiful this bird is!

Talking about birds, here is another one, a Jungle Babbler that I will not forget for its sheer sharpness, alertness and daring behaviour-

And while returning see, who was there to see off from the park after the end of the safari-

These forests always remind us of what we are and what we are supposed to be.

Sariska Safari46


Shh… Tiger is here!

Its International Tiger Day and tigers are all over in the news for last few days. From missing of tiger Jai in Maharashtra’s Umred Karhandla wildlife sanctuary to debate of inflated tiger count in India’s tiger reserves… but for the tiger lovers, there is nothing like a good sighting of a tiger in the wild. But there are times when in wild you know that tiger is there around you but you are not able to see it. Those are the very thrilling but also very frustrating moments.

A look at such moments, when tiger sighting ends in agonising wait or… extraordinary thrill.

With a pug mark so fresh… you know you have missed the tiger just by… but then who know that. He or she might be still around, watching you!


When, all you have to remain contented with is these marks on the trees. These scratches might not make any sense to us, but are a clear-cut signal to the other tigers. A tiger scratches the trees to mark its territory, so that no other tiger trespasses. Well, when marks are there, tiger must be somewhere around. Isn’t it!

When, you are sure its around. Even the call is there for all to listen but the big cat is still elusive or just playing games with the tourists. Foresters, the guides and the so-called experts… all can sense them, but they are equally nervous as the tourists as the tiger plays truant.

At times, you might even have an unmistakable glimpse from behind the woods, but that might not satisfy your appetite. Will it!


But whenever it enters a scene, it enters like a bollywood hero with a round of cheers and applause around.


In the ensuing enthusiasm the novices might miss the view but how can the seasoned ones miss the stripes behind the bushes!


And, finally when it comes, it makes its mark, literally. Man would not like to see a fellow human being in this act, but photographers will never like to miss the shot in wild- a tiger making marking. It is another of tiger’s way to mark its territory, dare you not cross the line!!


And, when he is marking, a human trespass can be very dangerous. But here is a lucky escape though.


He finishes, turns back to give a glance and smiles on his own magnanimity.


Looks ferocious but don’t worry, its dead and dead long ago, when tigers were not meant for conservation, but for hunting of royalty. Thrill to see stuffed tigers for those, who can’t see the real ones!


But few people have penchant to capture the real in fine lines. Might look like photos to some, but they are the paintings and are realistic paintings. Realistic in the sense, that the painted ones are not just any tiger, but real tigers inside the park and you can even match the stripes, birth marks. Hats off to the art!!


Two cubs on play at Panna – a photo essay

Tiger is a solitary animal, it likes to be alone in its territory along with his female partners. Often tigers get injured, many times fatally in territorial fights. Even two brothers will search for different territories once they are adult enough to hunt and feed for themselves and hence eventually their mother will leave them. As I mentioned in my last post (Read: Returning to the tiger in Panna) I was fortunate to watch two cubs on play. Mother was around but we couldn’t see her as she was down in a nullah at a cooler place. Cubs don’t look like cubs as they were almost more than a year old, but were still with their mother. We and the few other tourist vehicles located this family on a grassland right on the banks of the Ken river. Ken river flows through Panna Tiger reserve.

So here are the two galleries of the cubs on play- one for each of them. Here is the first one-

This was the first cub. He then disappeared suddenly, presumably joined his mother in the gorge between two river islands. It was an anxious wait for the tourist to seem him or the other ones again-

Panna Tiger14

Actually the tigers were quite far away from the place, where we were parked. We couldn’t have gone closer. I have not zoomed and cropped the images (although I could have) so as to give readers the perspective of the distance of the tigers despite capturing them from a 400mm telephoto lens. So after a long wait, another cub emerged from behind the bushes on the other side, almost invisible behind them. It was a delight to capture him in camera. See for yourself (you can miss him in first few shots because of the long dry grass. Remember my post: Spot the tiger in this wild image!)-

Its always thrill to watch big cats in the wild, but without disturbing them. Panna has a turnaround story of tiger conservation. But there are always dangers looming. Recently read a report that Madhya Pradesh has lost nearly 16 tigers, including seven in Pench reserve, due to poaching and others reasons in the last one year. As tourists, we also need to alert, alarmed, caring and careful. Lets enjoy more and more years of this lovely creation of nature.

Returning to the tiger in Panna

Panna Tiger1Panna tiger reserve has a special place personally for me. I have three personal firsts associated with this national park. It was here that I had my very first tiger sighting in the wild. This was also the place where I had my first and only tiger sighting while sitting on an elephant. Lastly, this is the only tiger reserve where I visited twice and had tiger sightings on both the occasions. And this time around, it was fortunate sighting of two cubs (photo above and below). Unluckily though, their mother remained elusive, although she was around.

Panna Tiger2

The gap of almost eleven years between these two visits to Panna had been a period of turmoil for this Tiger reserve. The story of Panna Tiger Reserve has not an ordinary one. A story of all hopes lost to an extraordinary resurrection. By 2009, Panna has lost all of its tigers. An area known for its precious diamonds and tigers was left with no more than an abandoned piece of land. Panna had gone the same way as Sariska in Rajasthan four years earlier. I felt the pain of photographing one of the last tigers of Panna.

But story of Panna’s revival was unparalleled in wildlife conservation, something that Sariska is still struggling for. A new team of officials was handed the charge and tigresses were brought in from Kanha and Bandhavgarh tiger reserves. A male tiger was brought in from Pench. Tigers were reintroduced into Panna and the endless efforts of the staff to ensure that they were raised safely within this deteriorating habitat. Combined with other efforts, in just five years tiger count in Panna went from zero to 25. Today Panna has more than 30 tigers. Just three years after the process of revival started, in 2012 Panna Tiger Reserve was awarded National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) award for active management and monitoring.

So, being in Panna once again and feeling the thrill of photographing the wild cats in their own habitat was so fulfilling.


Spot the tiger in this wild image!

However close you watch a tiger in a zoo, you won’t get that excitement. But you won’t be able to contain your anxiety on the thrill of watching a tiger in wild, in its own territory- however distant it might be. Am I wrong? You won’t say so, when you see satisfied faces coming out of tiger reserves after end of every safari, especially in India- home to most of the tigers in world in wild. Its different every time- the thrill, as I have felt in my all sightings of tiger in wild. This one was no different.

So, can you spot the tiger in this photo below, taken on my very recent visit to Panna tiger reserve? Have a closer look-

Spot the Tiger1

Tough, isn’t it? Spotting wild cats in the wild, especially the elusive ones, need a sharp pair of eyes and a powerful camera to shoot. But even a 400mm telephoto lens is not enough to capture the big cat so clearly, when it is so far. So for all purposes of photography, we need to crop and zoom. Let’s see, if the first crop helps (below)!

Spot the Tiger2

Well, few sharp ones would have spotted him, but will still be tough for most of us. So here is the second crop (below). This will be great help, I guess!

Spot the Tiger3

Now I believe, most of us would have have spotted the tiger very clearly, Isn’t it? If someone is still finding it difficult, then here is the third crop of the image (below)-

Spot the Tiger4

This would have perhaps confirmed all the wild guesses! So here is the fourth crop to give the cat a closer look-

Spot the Tiger5

Now you can go allover agin to the first image and try to spot the tiger. That would be interesting. You can still wonder how the tiger was spotted in the first place (from a distance of more that half a kilometre away, deep in dry grassland). At times, few incidents, few catches, few shots- just happen to be interesting. I hope you agree!!

White Tiger: When Mutation becomes Exhibit!

Main entrance of the Mukundpur White Tiger Safari and Zoo in Madhya Pradesh
Main entrance of the Mukundpur White Tiger Safari and Zoo in Madhya Pradesh

This might be a very rare happening in the history of wildlife conservation. A gene mutation has become something exotic and an aberration is been celebrated. Perhaps, beauty of a white tiger has lot to do with that. So fascinating that we have gone very far in actually preserving and breeding that mutation. That has brought us to a point where we have world’s only white tiger safari at Mukundpur in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh. The safari was thrown open for public this Sunday. I was there at that occasion.

White Tiger Raghu aged two and half years at Mukundpur zoo.
White Tiger Raghu aged two and half years at Mukundpur zoo.

Why Mukundpur? White tigers have association with this region. Although Mukundpur is in Satna district, it borders adjoining Rewa district. Erstwhile royal family of Rewa has been the corner stone of conservation of white tigers. Actually, fact is that there has been no sighting of white tigers in the wild anywhere else in the world, besides this region. And, even in this region there had been only two documented instances of white tiger sighting in the wild- firstly, more than hundred years ago in December 1915, when prince Gulab Singh of Rewa state captured a white tiger from the jungles of Sohagpur in Shahdol district which now is part of Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve and National Park. As per Journal of Bombay Natural History that tiger died in 1920 after spending five years behind cages in the royal palace.

A stuffed white tigress in Rewa palace.
A stuffed white tigress in Rewa palace.

The second instance of sighting a white tiger in wild is of May, 1951 when Rewa King Martand Singh (last Maharaja of the state who was a MP from Rewa on three occasions, twice as Independent and lastly representing Congress) captured alive a white tiger cub, while on a hunting spree in jungles of Seedhi district of Madhya Pradesh, which now falls under Sanjay Gandhi National Park. That was perhaps the most significant moment in the history of white tigers in world. The cub somehow managed to escape the firing line of the royal hunters and was later on caught alive while his mother and two of his siblings were hunted down. The white cub somehow caught the imagination of Maharaja Martand Singh, who brought the cub to the place and put it into a cage.

Mohan, who was cremated with full royal honours after his death in 1969, but his head was stuffed and preserved for generations to see
Mohan, who was cremated with full royal honours after his death in 1969, but his head was stuffed and preserved for generations to see

Named Mohan later on, this white tiger lived whole his life in the cage in the royal palace at Govindgarh near Rewa. He died in 1969 and his life span of 18 years was good enough to become father, grand father or great grand father of all the white tigers in the world at present. Numbering more than hundred, all these white tigers are kept in cages or enclosures in different zoos around the world. There was a large scale captive breeding of white tigers—initially in Govindgarh palace under Rewa state and later on at Delhi zoological garden. Cubs and Tigers with this gene mutation were gifted to zoos, parks and celebrities around the world. Slowly, breeding process at Govindgarh slowed down and with passing away of a white tiger ‘Viraat’ at Govindgarh in July 1976, white tigers vanished from their original habitat.

Now, after forty years, white tigers have been brought to the region, but as exhibits in a newly constructed zoo. About 20 kms from Rewa city, Mukundpur area falls under Maand Reserve area. A 75 hectare area has been earmarked for the zoo and 25 hectare for an exclusive world’s only white tiger safari. As of now, there is only one white tigress ‘Vindhya’ in the safari which can be visited only through a safari bus. The adjoining zoo has a white tiger Raghu and a white tigress Radha. There are two other normal Royal Bengal Tigers and a couple of bears. Zoo is awaiting few other animals. There are also plans to develop a breeding and wildlife rescue centre nearby.

White Tiger in Mukundpur zoo.
White Tiger in Mukundpur zoo.

White tigers are normal Indian tigers a few of whom in this region developed a gene mutation generations back. Mutation is an aberration—a permanent alteration in the DNA sequence resulting into a feature, which is different from the normal ones. They may or they may not pass this mutation to their offsprings, but there is always a probability. For example, Mohan fathered many normal tiger cubs as well. Due to this mutation, these tigers loose their traditional yellow colour and turn white. Their eyes also turn blue. All other features, habits and capabilities remain the same. The colour of the skin and eyes, make these white tigers more fascinating for the viewers.

Another of Mohan's offspring stuffed and showcased at Rewa palace.
Another of Mohan’s offspring stuffed and showcased at Rewa palace.

So, for locals in Rewa, loyalties of the royals and politicians in the state this is a happy moment as it has been an election issue to bring back the white tigers to the region they allegedly belong to. Hence the opening ceremony of the zoo seemed more like an election rally evident from the speeches of political leaders amidst gathering of more than 25 thousand people. But not everyone is happy. Breeding of white tigers has always been a hotly debated issue. Experts have been critical of it saying that there is no specific conservation value of this mutation. In long term it might be harmful for the species. World over, breeding of white tigers was stopped a decade ago.

Experts say that colour of skin compromises with camouflaging abilities of white tiger.
Experts say that colour of skin compromises with camouflaging abilities of white tiger.

In a paper World association of Zoos and Aquariums have voiced its concern on breeding practices to increase the physical expression of rare traits through intentional breeding. For example intentional breeding to achieve rare colour-morphs such as white tigers, deer and alligators has been linked with various abnormal, debilitating and occasionally lethal conditions. Better, we keep our efforts for actual and needed conservation efforts for the tigers in general.

White tigress Radha in a fearsome mood in her cage at Mukundpur zoo.
White tigress Radha in a fearsome mood in her cage at Mukundpur zoo.

Where: Mukundpur is in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh. It is 20 kms from Rewa city. Rewa is connected through train services via Bhopal and Varanasi. Varanasi and Khajuraho are the two nearest airports. Roads in the region are bit tricky, so keep margin for additional time taken to travel through roads. Rewa has a few descent hotels to stay. You may need to hire a vehicle to carry you to zoo and safari from the Rewa city. Infrastructure around the Mukundpur zoo and safari is yet to spring up.

Rewa palace, which now houses a museum and many of stuffed white tigers.
Rewa palace, which now houses a museum and many of stuffed white tigers.

Tiger population in India rises from 1,400 to 2,226 in 7 years

20-01-2015_Tigers68530 per cent rise in Tiger population since 2010

Tiger population in the country is estimated to be around 2,226, a rise of over 30 per cent since the last count in 2010, according to the latest census report. The total number of tigers were estimated to be around 1,706 in 2010. Tiger population had dipped to an alarming 1,411 in 2006 but has improved since then. Termed as a “success story”, this phenomenon notes that while the tiger population is falling in the world, it is rising in India.

20-01-2015_Tigers685-2Unique photos of 80 percent of tigers

Most of the tigers in the world are presently in India. 70 per cent of the world’s tigers are now in India. India has the world’s best managed tiger reserves. India also has unique photographs of 80 per cent of tigers for which around 9,735 cameras were being used. Nowhere in the world, so many cameras have been used for such an exercise. The report said that the total estimated population of tigers was somewhere around 1,945-2491 (2,226) as per 2014 report while as per the 2010 report, it was between 1,520-1909.

20-01-2015_Tigers685-3Double sampling methodology used for estimation

The third round of country level tiger assessment using the refined methodology of doubling sampling using camera traps has recorded an increase in tiger population. In 2006, the mid value of such a (once in four years) snap shot assessment using the same methodology was 1,411, in 2010 it was 1706 and now in 2014, it stands at 2,226. This is an increase of almost 30.5 per cent since the last estimate. Officials said that a total of 3,78,118 sq km of forest area in 18 tiger states were surveyed with a total of 1,540 unique tiger photo captures. Tiger population has increased in several states like Karnataka, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerela.

20-01-2015_Tigers685-4Improvement in score of 43 tiger reserves

The third round of independent management effectiveness evaluation of tiger reserves has shown an overall improvement in the score of 43 tiger reserves from 65 per cent in 2010-11 to 69 per cent in 2014. An economic valuation of six tiger reserves done for the first time has provided quantitative and qualitative estimates of benefits accruing from tiger reserves which include ecological, economic, social and cultural services. A compendium on the profile of tiger reserves was also released besides a report on corridors and a book on tiger dynamics. Several tiger reserves were also recognised for excelling in select thematic areas.

Amur tigers are increasing in Russia

Amur TigerThe population of the Amur tigers in the Khabarovsk Region National Park has reached 10. This is approximately three times more than it was three years ago, when the “North Tiger” project was first implemented, the Amur branch of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) of Russia reports.  The Amur tiger is the strongest felid and the only one managed to adapt oneself to life in the taiga snows. In the early 2000-ies, the population of the Amur tiger was notably decreasing in the Far East. Creation of a special Fund for Protection of the Amur Tiger in Russia helped to solve the problem of preserving and increasing the population of these rare animals.

Amur Tiger cubsAccording to the results, it was decided to extend the project. Earlier, the Russian government approved the “Strategy for the preservation of rare and endangered species of animals, plants and fungi in Russia throughout 2030.” The increase in the number of the Amur tigers is a great success of the Khabarovsk Region National Park’s staff. This region is home to the most Northern grouping of striped cats. Until recently, they numbered no more than 20 individuals. The goal is to at least double the population by 2020.

Amur tiger with a cubIn the first year of our activity, three tigers were registered there. Now, 10 tigers are registered in the territory of the Park. So, the increase in the number begins to show. Primarily, it is due to the fact that most of the territory is under protection now, closed for year-round visits. Thus, a certain area of peace was created. Since the first year of its work, the National Park has also carried out biotechnical activities on feeding wild ungulates, and thus increasing the food supply of the tiger.

Amur TigerThe “Northern Tiger” project became successful due to the complex approach to the problem of conservation and restoration of rare species of animals. About 413 animal species are now included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation, plus more than 70 regions of the country have their own regional Red Data Books. All the animals in these lists are excluded from economic activity. Their own programs of protection and increase of population are developed for many species. Anti-poaching services also play their positive role. Last year, an upgrading of penalties for killing, transportation and storage of rare species of animals or their parts was implemented. For example, previously, a poacher could be brought to account only if he was detained in the forest. Now, this applies to the transport of, say, skins, and storage. It also helps to protect rare species.

Amur tiger cooling off.
Amur tiger cooling off.

Census of tigers is conducted once every ten years in Russia, the last one took place in 2005. Besides, an annual accounting at monitoring sites is conducted. In 2005, there were approximately 450 tigers in the whole areal, about a hundred of them lived in the Khabarovsk region, the rest – in Primorye.  Primorye also reported growth last year. This is said to be the world’s largest tiger population, which lives in a not fragmented areal. The total number of Bengal tigers in India, of course, is higher than in Russia. But they live in small groups of 60-70 tigers and are isolated from each other, while Russia have, in fact, a huge habitat, where tigers can easily go to see each other. Last year it was also decided that a new national park where Amur tigers are going to be bred will be opened in Primorye.

(All photos : EPA, source: voiceofrussia.com)

Global Tiger Conference in Dhaka next month

a tiger at Sunderbans in Bangladesh
a tiger at Sunderbans in Bangladesh

With an aim to strengthen the tiger conservation campaign the second global tiger conference is scheduled to be held in Dhaka on March 4-6 which is a follow-up of the first conference held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in 2010. The Department of Forest in Bangladesh along with Global Tiger Initiative, the Global Tiger Forum is jointly organising the Second Global Tiger Recovery Programme stocktaking conference among the tiger range countries. The conference will mainly focus on tiger conservation activities taken by the different tiger range countries and asses the advancement of the initiatives taken up in 2010.

The global leaders of the tiger range countries had taken decision to double the number of tigers in the world by 2022 on the basis of the tiger population in 2010 when the number was approximately 3200. The tiger range countries where tigers still roam freely are Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand, Vietnam and North Korea. As per the joint census of Bangladesh and India in 2004 around 440 Bengal tigers were found in the Bangladeshi part of the Sundarbans.

Tigers-NepalMeanwhile, euphoric over the phenomenal growth of tiger population, disclosed by last year´s count, Nepal´s conservation authorities are now preparing to match the number of big cats with that of India. In July last year, the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC), after a grueling exercise of tracing tigers in five protected areas and three wildlife corridors of the country, officially put the tiger population at 198. At the same time, India also counted tigers in its all protected areas, which are geographically connected with Nepal’s tiger habitat. This is the first time that Nepal and India are matching their respective tiger populations.

Siberian Tigers make a comeback in China

Siberian Tiger on prowl
Siberian Tiger on prowl. Photo: wallsave.com

Once believed nearly extinct in China, the Siberian tiger, the largest member of the cat family, is making a comeback, the result of a decade-long effort to restore its natural habitat by banning logging, hunting and trapping. Chinese have been amazed not only by the apparent growth of the tiger population but also by how far the felines have spread. It made headlines around China this year when tigers were seen near Jiamusi, a city 140 miles from the Russian border. In China, the number of Siberian tigers living in the wild (far smaller than those in captivity) has been listed in government statistics at between 18 and 22 for some years. Nobody knows the exact number, because the Chinese don’t have tracking collars on the tigers, but there could be as many as 40 now and that the population is growing. Conservationists believe that the number of tigers has doubled in the last decade and that the area populated by tigers has become much larger.

Siberian TigerCredit goes to campaigns to restore the degraded forests in China and Russia. The latter began tiger-protection efforts in the 1940s and has the largest population of Siberian tigers, between 400 and 900, according to the World Wildlife Fund. But in recent years, China has caught up and might even be moving ahead in creating tiger-friendly habitat. Chinese efforts on behalf of the Siberian tiger have won worldwide praise among environmentalists. A 2010 report in the journal of the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies compared China’s preservation efforts favorably with India’s and ventured that China might even earn the right to claim it “saved the tiger.”

The King in his moods
The King in his moods

Tigers are endangered throughout the world: Their population in the wild has dwindled from an estimated 100,000 in the early 20th century to as few as 3,200 today. Siberian tigers, also known as Amur or Korean tigers, are among six surviving subspecies and are native to the boreal forests, or taiga, of China, Russia and North Korea. Although they weigh as much as 675 pounds, Siberian tigers are elusive creatures that slink into the forest when humans approach. Although Chinese still buy illegal body parts of tigers — poached in India or killed in captivity — for traditional medicine, the wild tigers have not been hunted in China since the 1950s. In fact, hunting of all animals except rats is banned in China.

But many people in the down-at-the-heels villages near the Russian border trap other animals, which also has an effect on tigers. First of all, tigers can easily be snared in traps. More important, trapping sets off a destructive cycle of theft; if humans steal the deer and wild pigs that are the tigers’ natural prey, the tigers in turn are prompted to steal the humans’ livestock.

Source: Tiger chronicles/WWF/LA Times